What Is Yellow Fever?
| What Is the Yellow Fever Vaccine?
| Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
| What Are the Risks Associated With Yellow Fever Vaccine?
| Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
| What Other Ways Can Yellow Fever Be Prevented Besides Vaccination?
| What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
What Is Yellow Fever?
is a virus that is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites.
Risk factors for getting yellow fever include traveling to an area where yellow fever is present.
Symptoms for yellow fever include:
- High fever
- Chills and muscle aches
- Yellowing of the skin, known as jaundice
More serious complications include:
Treatment involves taking care of the infected person while they recover. There is no medicine to treat the illness.
Illness from yellow fever varies from a self-limited illness to hemorrhagic fever, which can be very severe and lead to death.
What Is the Yellow Fever Vaccine?
The vaccine is a weakened, live form of the yellow fever virus. The vaccine is created by growing the live virus in a lab. The vaccine is administered by a shot.
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
The following individuals should get vaccinated:
- All individuals aged 9 months to 59 years who are traveling to or living in a place where yellow fever is present such as certain parts of South America and Africa
- People who work in labs and may be exposed to yellow fever
Travelers should be vaccinated at least 10 days before departure.
What Are the Risks Associated With Yellow Fever Vaccine?
Common minor side effects include:
- Soreness, swelling, or redness at the injection site
- Muscle aches
Rare, serious side effects include:
- Nervous system reaction
- Severe allergic reaction
- Organ failure
Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
The vaccine should not be given to:
- Infants aged six months or younger—In rare cases when your 6-8 month-old baby must travel to high-risk areas, talk to the doctor about the vaccine.
- People over the age of 60 are at higher risk for serious complications. If you are traveling to an area of yellow fever risk, consult an infectious disease specialist to find out if vaccination is a good choice for you.
- Are severely allergic to eggs, chicken, or gelatin
Have a disease that weakens the immune system, such as
—If you are traveling to high-risk areas, talk to your doctor about the vaccine.
Are receiving treatments that weaken the immune system, such as
- Have problems with the thymus or have had their thymus removed
- Are pregnant—Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of the vaccine if you are traveling to a high-risk area. If you are vaccinated, your doctor may use a blood test to confirm immunity.
- Are breastfeeding—If you are traveling to high-risk areas, talk to your doctor about the vaccine.
What Other Ways Can Yellow Fever Be Prevented Besides Vaccination?
To decrease your chance of getting yellow fever, do the following:
- Use insect repellent.
- Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
- Stay in screened areas.
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
An outbreak of yellow fever in the United States is unlikely since the virus is not geographically present in this country. But in the event of an outbreak, uninfected people would be vaccinated and precautions would be taken to reduce transmission.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Jentes ES, Poumerol G, Gershman MD, et al. The revised global yellow fever risk map and
recommendations for vaccination, 2010: consensus of the Informal WHO Working
Group on Geographic Risk for Yellow Fever.
Lancet Infect Dis.
Khromava AY, Eidex RB, Weld LH, et al. Yellow Fever Vaccine Safety Working Group. Yellow fever vaccine: an updated
assessment of advanced age as a risk factor for serious adverse events.
Vaccine. 2005 May 9;23(25):3256-63.
Staples JE, Gershman M, Fischer M. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC). Yellow fever vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on
Immunization Practices (ACIP).
MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010 Jul 30;59(RR-7):1-27.
Thomas RE, Lorenzetti DL, Spragins W, Jackson D, Williamson T. Active and
passive surveillance of yellow fever vaccine 17D or 17DD-associated serious adverse events: systematic review.
Vaccines & immunizations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/. Accessed May 28, 2013.
Vaccine Education Center website. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia website. Available at:
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Yellow fever vaccine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated May 20, 2013. Accessed May 28, 2013.
Yellow fever vaccine: what you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/vis/downloads/vis-yf.pdf. Published March 30, 2011. Accessed May 28, 2013.
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5/28/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: World Health Organization.
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http://www.who.int/wer/2013/wer8820/en/index.html. Accessed May 28, 2013.
Last reviewed June 2013 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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