A risk factor is something that increases your likelihood of getting a disease or condition.
It is possible to develop obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with or without the risk factors listed below. However, the more risk factors you have, the greater your likelihood of developing OCD. If you have a number of risk factors, ask your doctor what you can do to reduce your risk.
Risk factors may include:
OCD tends to develop in late adolescence or early adulthood. However, it can begin as early as preschool age and as late as age 40.
Research suggests that genes may play a role in the development of OCD in some cases. The condition tends to run in families. A person who has OCD has a 25% chance of having a blood relative who has it.
One study found that children have inherited OCD symptoms in 45%-60% of cases, while adults have inherited symptoms in 27%-47% of cases.
OCD often occurs in people who have other
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),
eating disorders, and certain personality disorders.
PANDAS, which refers to Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal Infections, is a term that refers to a group of children who have OCD and/or a tic disorder, which gets worse or is related to
strep throat. Researchers are studying what causes this, for example, antibodies in the body may interact with the brain.
OCD symptoms often occur during stress from major life changes, such as loss of a loved one, divorce, relationship difficulties, problems in school, or abuse.
OCD symptoms may worsen during and immediately after pregnancy. In this case, fluctuating hormones can trigger symptoms. Postpartum OCD is characterized by disturbing thoughts and compulsions regarding the baby’s well-being.
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Moretti G, Pasquini M, Mandarelli G, et al. What every psychiatrist should know about PANDAS: a review.
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van Groothest DS, Cath DC, Beekman AT, Boomsma DI. Twin studies on OCD: A review.
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2005;8:450-458.
Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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