| Risk Factors
Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder. It alters the shape of the red blood cells (RBCs). This decreases their ability to carry oxygen. It can also cause acute episodes of pain. These are called a sickle cell crisis. The body will also destroy the sickle cells. The loss of RBCs results in
The change in the ability and number of RBCs can decrease the amount of oxygen for the body.
Red Blood Cells: Normal and Sickle
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Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder. If you receive one defective gene from each of your parents, then you will have sickle cell disease. If you only have one defective gene, you are said to have sickle cell trait, but not sickle cell disease. Although you won’t usually have any symptoms, you can pass this gene on to your children.
Factors that increase your chance for sickle cell anemia include:
- Race: Blacks of sub-Saharan origin
- Ethnicity: Greeks, Italians, and people from some parts of India, Central and South America, and the Arabian Peninsula
This condition produces a group of symptoms known as a sickle cell crisis. These are episodes of pain that occur with varying frequency and severity. It is usually followed by periods of remission. The risk for a sickle cell crisis increases with any activity that boosts the body's requirement for oxygen. This may include illness, physical or emotional
stress, or high altitudes.
These painful crises can last hours or days. They affect the bones of the back, the long bones, and the chest. The crises can be severe enough to require hospital admission for pain control and IV fluids.
Symptoms of sickle cell crisis include:
- Pain and swelling in the hands and feet
- Pale skin color
- Chest pain, or episodic pain in joints, abdomen, or back
- Shortness of breath
- Abdominal swelling
- Unusual or prolonged headache
- Any sudden weakness or loss of sensation
- Prolonged erection
- Sudden vision changes
Sudden, severe anemia can cause:
- Shortness of breath
- Loss of consciousness
Complications of sickle cell anemia include:
- Destruction of the spleen
Severe bacterial infections:
- Damage to the joints, especially hip and shoulder
- Damage to eyes, resulting in impaired vision
or other neurological impairment
- Liver disease
High rate of
Damage to penis, due to prolonged erection, which may result in
- Heart murmurs
or enlarged heart
- Delayed growth
- Delayed sexual development
- Problems with thinking, memory, and performance
- Aplastic crisis or transient red cell aplasia
Hemoglobin electrophoresis is a simple blood test. It can be done by
or a local sickle cell foundation. Most states require testing of newborns for sickle cell.
is a form of prenatal testing. It can also detect sickle cell disease.
Basic treatment of sickle cell crisis includes:
In addition, treatment may include:
Newborns with sickle cell disease may be given
. It is given twice a day, beginning at age two months. It is continued until at least five years of age.
It is recommended that children with sickle cell disease who are 2-5 years of age receive
pneumococcal vaccine (PCV-7). Other routine immunizations should also be given, such as an annual flu shot.
Hydroxyurea is the first drug to significantly prevent complications of sickle cell disease. It increases the production of fetal hemoglobin. This decreases the number of deformed RBCs. As a result, it reduces the frequency of sickle cell crisis. Hydrea is not appropriate for everyone with sickle cell disease.
Blood transfusions can treat and prevent some of the complications. Transfusion therapy can help prevent recurring strokes in children.
bone marrow transplant
from a matched donor may be effective. There are medical risks involved. Recipients must also take drugs that suppress the immune system for the rest of their lives.
If you or your child is diagnosed with sickle cell anemia, follow your doctor's
Sickle cell anemia cannot be prevented. There are some general guidelines that may keep the condition under control. Be sure to discuss these with your doctor:
supplements. This will help to build new RBCs.
- Drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration.
- Avoid temperature extremes.
- Avoid overexertion and stress.
- Get plenty of rest.
- Get regular check-ups with knowledgeable healthcare providers.
- Seek genetic counseling.
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Sickle cell disease. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 6, 2013. Accessed July 1, 2013.
Sickle cell disease. Nemours' KidsHealth.org website. Available at:
http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/heart/sickle_cell_anemia.html. Updated September 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.
Sickle cell disease (SCD). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/index.html. Updated September 27, 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.
Sickle Cell Disease. American Academy of Family Physicians' Family Doctor.org website. Available at:
http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/sickle-cell-disease.html. Updated January 2011. Accessed July 1, 2013.
What is sickle cell anemia?
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
website. Available at:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sca/. Updated September 28, 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.
DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Vichinsky EP, Neumayr LD, Gold JI, et al. Neuropsychological dysfunction and neuroimaging abnormalities in neurologically intact adults with sickle cell anemia.
Last reviewed July 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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