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The following are general guidelines you can follow to reduce your risk of seizures:

  • Develop a sleep routine. Try to go to bed at the same time and sleep the same number of hours. This is important because lack of sleep can lower the seizure threshold and increase the risk of seizures.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol. Alcohol also lowers the threshold and increases the risk of seizures. Alcohol also interacts with the anti-epileptic drugs, which can lead to seizures.
  • Always tell your doctors that you have a seizure disorder. Many medicine prescribed for various conditions may cause drug interactions and cause seizures, or lower the seizure threshold and cause seizures.
  • Keep a seizure diary of dates, type, frequency, duration, aura description, post seizure description, and other details.
  • Have medical follow-ups.
  • Discuss a safe diet and exercise program with your doctor.
  • Discuss driving privileges with your doctor, as each case and state requirements differ.

In some patients, especially children, a strict diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates may help lessen the number of seizures. This is called the ketogenic diet.

The ketogenic diet forces the body to break down fats rather than carbohydrates to provide the energy needed to survive. It is usually tried in children whose epileptic seizures are poorly controlled with medicine. One study showed that the diet decreased the frequency of seizures 50%-90% in 75% of the patients studied. Another study comparing the ketogenic diet to no change in treatment showed that the diet may reduce seizures in children. It is not known exactly why the diet helps decrease seizures.

This diet is not easy to follow. It is very rigid, and the number of foods available to eat is very limited. Children are usually admitted to the hospital to begin this diet and must be followed very closely by a doctor and/or registered dietitian while they are on the diet. It also has possible side effects. These include:

  • Stunted growth due to nutrient deficiencies
  • Pancreatitis due to elevated triglycerides
  • Build-up of uric acid, which can cause kidney stones or gout
  • Increased risk for heart disease, due to the high fat intake

Patients on the diet should:

  • Work with a registered dietitian.
  • Have regular medical check-ups.

  • You (or your child) experience any unusual or severe symptoms or side effects
  • You (or your child) has a recurrence or change in the pattern of seizures
References:

Berkow R. The Merck Manual of Medical Information. 17th ed. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster; 2000.

Epilepsy Foundation website. Available at: http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/.

5/14/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Neal EG, Chaffe H, Schwartz RH, et al. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of childhood epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008 May 2.

Last reviewed March 2013 by Rimas Lukas, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.


 
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