| Risk Factors
a bacterial infection. A
toxin from the
infection affects the nervous system. It can lead to severe muscle spasms. Such spasms lead to lockjaw. This spasm makes it impossible to open or close the mouth. Tetanus can be fatal.
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Tetanus bacteria are found in soil, dust, or manure. It enters your body through a break in the skin.
When it is in your body, the bacteria create a toxin. This toxin causes
Factors that increase your risk of tetanus include:
- Lack of tetanus vaccination
or regular booster shots—or not updating tetanus vaccination in timely manner
- IV drug use
- Skin sores or wounds
- Exposure of open wounds to soil or animal feces
Symptoms of tetanus may include:
- Stiff jaw muscles or neck muscles
- Drooling or trouble swallowing
- Muscle spasticity or rigidity
- Pain or tingling at a wound site
- Difficulty breathing
- Heart beat that is too fast or too slow
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The diagnosis is mainly based on the medical history.
Your doctor may test the wound. A culture will grow the bacteria causing the infection. Culture results are not always accurate for tetanus.
Treatment may include:
- Hospitalization—to manage complications of the infection
- Opening and cleaning the wound—entire wounded area may need to be
- Tetanus immune globulin—antibodies against tetanus that help neutralize the tetanus toxin
A tetanus shot—if your
is not up to date
- Medication to treat symptoms—may include antiseizure medication or muscle relaxants
Tetanus can cause severe problems with breathing or swallowing. A breathing tube may be inserted in the throat. This will help keep the airway open until you heal. A surgical procedure called a
may be done. This will provide an open airway if your upper airway cannot be accessed.
The best means of prevention is immunization. The immunization schedule for tetanus is as follows:
All children with few exceptions should receive the DTaP
series. This protects against
diphtheria, tetanus, and
- Children aged 11-12 years that have completed the DTaP series of shots will receive another vaccine called Tdap.
- Adults should receive a booster dose of the tetanus and diphtheria vaccine (Td) every 10 years. They may also receive this vaccine after an exposure to tetanus. It is not harmful to receive a tetanus vaccination earlier than 10 years.
If you or your child has not been fully vaccinated, talk to the doctor. There are catch-up schedules available.
In addition to the vaccine, you can prevent tetanus by taking proper care of wounds:
- Promptly clean all wounds.
- See your doctor for medical care of wounds.
Recommended adult immunization schedule—United States, 2013.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62:9-18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/adult/mmwr-adult-schedule.pdf. Accessed August 8, 2013.
Recommended immunization schedule for persons aged 0 through 18 years—United States 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013;62:2-8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/downloads/child/mmwr-0-18yrs-catchup-schedule.pdf. Accessed August 8, 2013.
Tetanus (lockjaw) vaccination. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/tetanus/default.htm. Updated February 7, 2013. Accessed August 8, 2013.
1/31/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2008. MMWR. 2008;57;Q1-Q4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5701a8.htm. Updated January 10, 2008. Accessed January 28, 2008.
1/24/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis (tdap) vaccine from the advisory committee on immunization practices, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.
11/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated recommendations for use of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant women and persons who have or anticipate having close contact with an infant aged <12 months—Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2011.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.
Last reviewed August 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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