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Definition | Causes | Risk Factors | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatment | Prevention

Definition

Gout occurs when uric acid crystals build up in the joints. This causes the joints to be inflamed, causing pain.

Causes

Gout typically occurs if you have high levels of uric acid in your blood. A high level of uric acid in the blood is identified by the term hyperuricemia. However, you could also have normal uric levels and still have gout.

The uric acid can then form crystals in the joints causing the pain and inflammation.

The liver metabolizes uric acid, and the kidneys get rid of it through the urine. Levels of uric acid build up when:

  • Too much uric acid is produced
  • Not enough uric acid is eliminated

If you have gout and hyperuricemia, your body doesn't eliminate enough uric acid.

Risk Factors

Gout is more common in men over the age of 30 years, but gout can occur in men and women at any age. Other factors that may increase your risk of gout include:

Certain foods and beverages may also increase your chances of gout.

  • Foods high in purines, such as organ meats, shellfish, some vegetables, and gravies.
  • High-fructose drinks, such as sugar-sweetened sodas and orange juice
  • Excess alcohol, especially beer
  • Binge drinking alcohol

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

  • Sudden onset of severe pain in an inflamed joint, usually starting in the big toe
  • Joints that are red, hot, swollen, and very tender
  • Increased pain 24-48 hours after the onset of symptoms

Gout of the Big Toe

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Most people with gout have another attack. This attack may affect many different joints. With recurrent gout, tophi can form. Tophi are chalky deposits of uric acid that commonly occur in the elbows and earlobes.

Gout can also lead to other health problems, such as:

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A sample of fluid from the affected joint will be taken. This fluid will be tested for uric acid crystals.

Other tests may include:

  • Blood and urine tests—to measure the level of uric acid in your blood and to assess kidney function
  • X-ray —a test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body, especially bones; used to check for joint destruction

Treatment

Treatment depends on whether the gout is acute or recurrent.

In general, the sooner treatment begins for an acute attack, the more effective it is. Treatment depends on:

  • Number of joints affected
  • Previous responses to treatment
  • Overall health

Putting an ice pack on the joint may ease the pain. Keeping the weight of clothes or bed covers off the joint can also help.

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Corticosteroids—may be given orally or as an injection into the affected joint
  • Colchicine
  • Consume a low-purine diet.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • If you're overweight, lose weight gradually. Rapid weight loss can cause a gout attack.
  • Ask your doctor if any of your medications can cause high uric acid levels.
  • Drink a lot of fluids throughout the day.

If you have recurrent gouty arthritis, or you have kidney stones, tophi, or reduced kidney function, you may be given medications:

  • To lower the production of uric acid
  • To increase the excretion of uric acid by the kidneys
  • To convert uric acid into a different byproduct

If you are diagnosed with gout, follow your doctor's instructions .

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of getting gout:

  • Eat a low-purine diet.
  • Limit how much alcohol you drink. Avoid binge drinking.
  • Drink a lot of fluids.
  • Lose weight gradually.
RESOURCES:

Arthritis Foundation

http://www.arthritis.org

American Arthritis Society

http://www.americanarthritis.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Arthritis Society of Canada

http://www.arthritis.ca

Canadian Arthritis Network

http://www.arthritisnetwork.ca

References:

Gout. American College of Rheumatology website. Available at: http://www.rheumatology.org/Practice/Clinical/Patients/Diseases_And_Conditions/Gout. Updated September 2012. Accessed July 12, 2013.

Gout. Arthritis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.arthritis.org/conditions-treatments/disease-center/gout. Accessed July 12, 2013.

Gout. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what. Updated February 13, 2013. Accessed July 12, 2013.

Gout - treatment of acute attack. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what. Updated May 6, 2013. Accessed July 12, 2013.

Gout overview. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home.html. Updated March 2010. Accessed July 12, 2013.

Questions and answers about gout. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Gout/default.asp. Accessed July 12, 2013.

Rott KT, Agudelo CA. Gout. JAMA. 2003;289:2857-2860.

Terkeltaub RA. Clinical practice. Gout. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1647-1655.

What is gout? National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Gout/gout_ff.pdf. Accessed July 12, 2013.

1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Man CY, Cheung IT, Cameron PA, Rainer TH. Comparison of oral prednisolone/paracetamol and oral indomethacin/paracetamol combination therapy in the treatment of acute gout-like arthritis: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49:670-677. Epub 2007 Feb 5.

1/4/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Choi HK, Willett W, Curhan G. Fructose-rich beverages and risk of gout in women. JAMA. 2010;304(20):2270-2278.

Last reviewed June 2013 by Michael Woods, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.


 
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