What Is an IUD?
| How Does It Work?
| Some IUD Perks
| IUD Side Effects
"It's easy to forget a pill every day and it's time-consuming to use something every time you have sex," says Christina, a 36-year-old married mother of three children. "I just wish there were more birth control options for women." Like many married women in their 30s and 40s, Christina wonders if there is an easier alternative besides surgery to remove her uterus or a daily pill. One alternative is an intrauterine device, more commonly known as an IUD.
What Is an IUD?
The modern IUD is a very small T-shaped piece of plastic that is inserted into a woman's uterus by a doctor. It is about as thin as a toothpick and as long as a small paper clip. Two short pieces of specialized thread hang from its end through the cervix so the doctor can easily remove it when it is no longer needed. The IUD prevents pregnancy just as well as
birth control pills
or getting your tubes tied, and is considered very safe.
How Does It Work?
There are two types of IUDs available, copper and hormonal. They mainly work by disabling movement of the sperm into the tube so it can't meet with an egg. The hormonal IUD thickens cervical mucus, which also interferes with the sperm's mobility. When a sperm and egg can't meet, pregnancy can't occur.
In some women, a hormonal IUD may prevent an ovary from releasing an egg.
Some IUD Perks
There are IUDs available that contain a small amount of the hormone progesterone. A benefit to this type of IUD is it may help decrease menstrual bleeding and reduce cramping and discomfort in women who have heavy periods.
Also, because the IUD lasts between five and ten years, it is also extremely cost-effective. The greatest cost is having it put in initially, but after that there are no other expenses.
Another benefit is that unlike when using the pill, you do not need to remember to take something every day.
IUD Side Effects
There may be some mild cramping at the time of insertion. After the insertion, all a woman has to do is check that she can feel the threads at the end of the cervix once a month after each menstrual cycle. Rarely, the IUD might come out with menstrual blood or float higher into the uterus, so checking the strings makes sure it is still in the right place. Side effects with the copper IUD can include increased cramping and bleeding but the new progesterone-releasing IUD usually eliminates that side effect.
Remember that using and IUD doesn't protect you or your partner from sexually transmitted diseases. To do that you need to use a male latex condom every time you have oral, vaginal, or anal intercourse.
If you are thinking about contraception, talk to your doctor about all of your options.
IUD. Planned Parenthood website. Available at: http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/birth-control/iud-4245.htm. Accessed November 12, 2013.
Intrauterine device. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq014.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20131112T1622507008. Accessed November 12, 2013.
Intrauterine device (IUD). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated July 2, 2013. Accessed November 12, 2013.
Last reviewed November 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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