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Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis

(ANUG; Trench Mouth; Vincent's Stomatitis)

En Español (Spanish Version)

Definition | Causes | Risk Factors | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatment | Prevention

Definition

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) is a serious infection of the gums that causes ulcers, swelling, and dead tissues in the mouth.

Causes

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is typically caused by excess bacteria in the mouth.

Risk Factors

ANUG most often impacts people who are 35 years of age and younger. Factors that may increase the risk of ANUG include excess bacteria in the mouth due to:

  • Lack of dental care
  • Poor dental hygiene
  • Poor diet
  • Vitamin deficiencies
  • Infections in the throat, teeth, or mouth
  • A compromised immune system
  • Smoking
  • Stress

Symptoms

Symptoms may include:

  • Pain in the gums
  • Gums that bleed easily
  • Bad taste in the mouth; extremely bad breath
  • Red and swollen gums
  • Gray residue on the gums
  • Large ulcers or loss of gum tissue in between teeth
  • Fever
  • Discomfort
  • Swollen lymph nodes

Red and Swollen Gums

Gingivitis
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Diagnosis

Your dentist will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A dental exam will be done.

Images may be taken of your teeth and face. This can be done with x-rays.

Dental X-ray

Jaw x-ray teeth
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Treatment

Although ANUG is a painful condition, it can be healed with treatment. Talk with your dentist about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

  • Antibiotics to clear up the infection
  • Dental surgery
  • Regular dental cleanings
  • Changes in diet

Prevention

To help reduce your chances of getting ANUG, take the following steps:

  • Take proper care of teeth and gums.
  • See your dentist regularly.
  • Maintain a balanced, nutritional diet.
RESOURCES:

American Academy of Periodontology

http://www.perio.org

American Dental Association

http://www.ada.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Dental Association

http://www.cda-adc.ca

Canadian Dental Hygienists Association

http://www.cdha.ca

References:

Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 30, 2009. Accessed November 19, 2013.

Contreras A, Falkler WA Jr, Enwonwu CO, et al. Herman herpesviridae in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in children in Nigeria. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1997;12:259-265.

Schreiner C, Quinn FB. Stomatitis. University of Texas Medical Branch website. Available at: http://www.utmb.edu/otoref/grnds/stomatitis.htm. Published November 29, 1995. Accessed November 19, 2013.

Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael Woods, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.