| Drowsy Driving
| Sleep Measures
Sleep deprivation can be summed up as a chronic lack of adequate sleep. Too little sleep—even one hour less a night—develops over time into a “sleep debt.” This sleep debt can accumulate and is only wiped out when enough sleep is obtained. And sleeping more on weekends may not completely erase the debt. Switching back and forth from late hours on weekends to early hours on weekdays may even exacerbate the problem.
If sleep debt becomes too great, it causes sleepiness and can negatively affect performance, concentration, reaction time, memory, mood, and behavior control. A teen’s physical growth can even be affected by a chronic lack of sleep, since growth hormone is most active during sleep.
Teens need about nine hours of sleep per night, yet on average get around seven hours. Not getting enough sleep is only part of the problem, as sleep patterns also change during adolescence. Changes related to puberty cause the sleep hormone melatonin to be released later in the day, which alters the circadian rhythms and, in turn, the sleep-wake cycle. The result is teens fall asleep later and wake up later. While this altered schedule is recognized as a normal part of puberty, it has not changed the fact that many middle and high schools have early start times, cutting into possible sleep time.
One of the most troubling effects of sleep deprivation is a drop in memory and attention, making learning more difficult and negatively impacting school performance.
In a study published in
Child Development, researchers studied the sleep habits of 3,120 high school students. They then compared sleep habits to mood, school performance, and behavior. They found that struggling students went to bed 40 minutes later and had 25 fewer minutes of sleep than the students earning better grades. The students who got less sleep also experienced increased sleepiness during the day, depressed mood, and behavior problems. Even this small difference in sleep seemed to affect the way adolescents functioned during the daytime.
An estimated 32% of children and teens aged 2-19 are either overweight or obese, which may lead to serious consequences, like a shortened life expectancy in adulthood. What role does sleep play? Studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in children and teens increased the risk of them being overweight and obese. Studies have also found that kids who try get "catch up" sleep on the weekends and holidays may actually be able to reduce their risk for becoming overweight or obese.
Too little sleep can also contribute to a negative self-image and
depression. A study in the journal,
Sleep Medicine, looked at the rate of depression among those with various sleep disorders. While previous studies centered on
narcolepsy, the researchers broadened their study to include
insomnia, inadequate-sleep-and-wake hygiene, and
restless leg syndrome.
The results showed a high rate of depression in people with sleep disorders. Over half of the 917 study participants were found to have some form of depression, while 3.5% experienced a moderate or severe form of depression. The researchers recommended that sleep deprived patients should routinely be evaluated for depression.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration attributes 100,000 crashes annually to drowsy drivers. Sleepiness and driving are a lethal combination because of slower reaction times, decreased attention, and a slower rate of information processing. Young drivers, especially those 16-29 years old, are among the highest at risk for drowsy driving.
In a study in the journal
Human Factors, driving performance of sleep-deprived subjects was compared to those who were alcohol impaired. Sixty-four participants were tested. Some were partially deprived of sleep, receiving only four hours of sleep the night before testing, while others received no sleep the night before testing. The rest were given alcohol to induce a blood level of 0.07%. All participants were then tested during two hours of simulated driving. Two groups, the alcohol group and the no-sleep group did poorly when trying to stay in the lane while driving, and the researchers termed their driving safety as critical. The partially sleep-deprived group experienced a decline but was categorized as non-critical.
Getting enough sleep is more than a good idea. It restores us both physically and mentally. If your teen is irritable, has difficulty waking, or falls asleep spontaneously, sleep deprivation may be the culprit. Have your teen try the following steps to create a balance between sleep and a busy calendar:
- Establish a calming bedtime routine.
- Avoid stimulating activities, like computer games or television, before bed.
- Steer clear of caffeine and nicotine after 12:00 in the afternoon.
- Keep to a regular bedtime, even on weekends.
- Make sure the bedroom is conducive to sleep—drawn blinds, no lights, TV, or computer.
- Sleep in on the weekends, but no more than 2-3 hours later than normal.
- Achieve a balanced schedule and avoid overloading.
Also, you can be a role model for your teen by having good sleep habits.
2003 national sleep disorders research plan. National Center on Sleep Disorders Research, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at:
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/sleep/res_plan/. Accessed May 21, 2012.
Dahl RE, Lewin DS. Pathways to adolescent health: sleep regulation and behavior.
J Adolesc Health. 2002;31:175-184.
Fairclough SH, Graham R. Impairment of driving performance caused by sleep deprivation or alcohol: a comparative study.
Hum Factors. 1999;41:118-128.
FAQs: drowsy driving. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website. Available at:
http://www.aaafoundation.org/resources/index.cfm?button=drowsyfaq#serious. Accessed May 21, 2012.
Obesity in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://dynaweb.ebscohost.com. Updated May 16, 2012. Accessed May 21, 2012.
Polsdorfer R. Risk factors for obesity. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/. Updated September 23, 2011. Accessed May 21, 2012.
Vandeputte M, de Weerd A. Sleep disorders and depressive feelings: a global survey with the Beck depression scale.
Sleep Medicine. 2003;4:269.
Wolfson AR, Carskadon MA. Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents.
Child Dev. 1998;69:875-887.
12/14/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Wing YK, Li SX, Li AM, Zhang J, Kong AP. The effect of weekend and holiday sleep compensation on childhood overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2009;124(5):e994-e1000.
Last reviewed May 2012 by Brian Randall, MD
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