Measles, Mumps, and Rubella?
| What Is the Measles, Mumps, RubellaVaccine?
| Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
| What Are the Risks Associated With the MMR Vaccine?
| Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
| What Other Ways Can Measles, Mumps, and Rubella
| What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
Measles, Mumps, and Rubella?
is a viral infection that can cause rash, cough, runny nose, eye irritation, and fever. It can lead to ear infection, pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, and death.
Mumps is a viral infection that can result in fever, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, and swollen glands. It can lead to deafness, infection of the brain and spinal cord covering, painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries, and sterility.
is a viral infection that can can result in a rash, mild fever, or
arthritis. Pregnant women who have rubella are at increased risk for
miscarriage. Their babies may be born with severe birth defects.
What Is the Measles, Mumps, RubellaVaccine?
measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)
vaccine consists of 3 live
viruses made in chicken embryo cells. The viruses found in the vaccine have been made harmless during the manufacturing process.
The vaccine is given under the skin.
Who Should Get Vaccinated and When?
with few exceptions
should receive the vaccine two times:
- 12-15 months
- 4-6 years (school entry)—can be given earlier, but the two doses must be separated by at least four weeks
The vaccine can also be given to infants younger than 12 months who will be traveling internationally. These infants should also get the two routine shots at ages 12-15 months and 4-6 years.
Adults born after 1956 who have not been previously vaccinated may need
at least one
dose. Talk with your doctor if you were not previously vaccinated.
What Are the Risks Associated With the MMR Vaccine?
The majority of people who get the vaccine do not have any side effects. The most common side effects are a fever and a rash 1-2 weeks after vaccination. Redness and swelling at the injection site may occur. Rare complications include:
—severe, life-threatening allergic reaction
Seizures—in children inclined to have
- Permanent brain damage
Who Should Not Get Vaccinated?
In some cases, the vaccine should be delayed, such as:
- People who are very sick.
- Women who are planning to become pregnant or those who are pregnant
Most children and teens should receive their vaccinations on schedule. However, certain groups should not be vaccinated:
- People with immune system disorders—If you have HIV and are doing well, you should consider getting the vaccine. Measles can be fatal if you have HIV.
- People being treated with drugs that affect the immune system
- People who have cancer or are being treated for cancer with radiation or drugs
- People with a low platelet count should talk to their doctor about whether to get the vaccine
- People who have received another vaccine within the past four weeks
- People who have had a recent transfusion or who have received other blood products should talk to their doctor about whether to get the vaccine
- Pregnant women—Avoid becoming pregnant for at least one month after getting the vaccine.
- Previous severe allergic reaction to the vaccine or its components
What Other Ways Can Measles, Mumps, and Rubella
If you have the measles, mumps, or rubella, you should be isolated to stop the virus from spreading. For example, children with the
should stay home until the virus is over.
What Happens in the Event of an Outbreak?
A case of the
measles, mumps, or rubella
needs to be reported to public health authorities. If you think you or your child has the
measles, mumps, or rubella, call the doctor right away.
Anyone who may have been exposed and has not been fully immunized will need to receive the vaccine.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Measles, mumps, and rubella: vaccine use and strategies for elimination of measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome and control of mumps: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00053391.htm. Published May 22, 1998. Accessed October 8, 2013.
MMR vaccine: What you need to know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/mmr.pdf. Published April 20, 2012. Accessed October 8, 2013.
1/31/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2008.
MMWR. 2008;57;Q1-Q4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, MMWR website. Available at:
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5701a8.htm. Updated January 10, 2008. Accessed October 10, 2013.
5/27/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/: Measles—United States, January—May 20, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 May 20 early online.
Last reviewed June 2013 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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