What is Trauma?
Trauma is a serious injury or shock
to the body. It is caused by a physical force such as violence or an accident. The injury may be complicated by psychiatric, behavioral, and social factors.
It is critical to have an entire team immediately available to provide care to an injured patient 24-hours a day. This teamwork starts at the scene of the injury where a coordinated, statewide pre-hospital medical system rapidly transports the injured patient from the scene to the hospital providing the appropriate level of care according to criteria established in the statewide trauma regulations. Once at the hospital, a complete team of surgeons, emergency physicians and nurses continue the life-saving treatment.
This team approach to care of the injured patient has had a dramatic impact on saving lives.
Minimally Invasive Procedures for Massive Bleeding
Injuries take many forms. The most advanced hospitals can treat injuries with a variety of approaches that involve well-known ones, like surgery, and newer ones where minimally invasive procedures can replace some surgeries.
As a Level 1 Trauma Center, Hartford Hospital has Interventional Radiologists as part of the Trauma Team. They perform procedures such as "embolization" which is a recognized interventional radiology technique that is used to treat trauma patients with massive bleeding.
Click here to see some of the advanced interventional techniques available at Hartford Hospital.
Learn more about trauma
, or search below to learn about other health conditions.
| Reasons for Procedure
| Possible Complications
| What to Expect
| Call Your Doctor
Cervical conization is done to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix. The cervix is located at the top of the vagina and is the entry way into the uterus (womb).
Reasons for Procedure
A cervical conization is used to diagnose and to treat
or precancerous changes in the cervix. The procedure takes place after a woman has had abnormal
Pap smears. Pap smears are screening tests to detect abnormal, pre-cancerous, and cancerous cells in the cervix.
Cervix With Precancerous Growth
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have a cervical conization, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
- Premature delivery with future pregnancies
- Scarring of the cervix
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
What to Expect
Do not eat or drink anything for 8 hours prior to the procedure.
You will be given some type of anesthesia. These options include:
- Local anesthetic—The area will be numbed. IV sedation may also be given to help you relax.
- Regional anesthesia
(epidural, spinal)—The lower half of the body will be numb.
- General anesthesia
—You will be asleep.
A speculum will be inserted into the vagina, similar to a Pap smear. It will hold your vagina open and allow instruments to pass easier. Your doctor will use a knife, laser, or heated loop to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix. If there are abnormal cells, they will also be removed. Self-absorbable sutures may be placed in the cervix to control bleeding.
The tissue will be sent to a lab to test for cancer. The test results will be available within a week.
The procedure will take less than an hour.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during this procedure. After the procedure, you may have some discomfort. You can take pain relievers to help manage any discomfort.
You will rest in a recovery area until the anesthesia wears off. When you are awake and aware, you will be able to go home.
When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:
- You may have some bleeding or discharge from your vagina for several days postsurgery. A sanitary napkin or pad may be worn. Tampons should not be used for a month or more after the surgery.
- Sexual intercourse is discouraged for 4-6 weeks.
- Showers and baths are OK.
Be sure to follow your doctor's
A postoperative exam takes place at six weeks.
Call Your Doctor
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
- Signs of infection, including fever, chills, or smelly discharge from vagina
- Heavy vaginal bleeding (This may not occur until about one week after the operation, when the healing scar is shed from the cervix.)
- Abdominal or pelvic pain that worsens
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.
Cervical Cancer: Surgery. American Cancer Society website. Available at:
http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CervicalCancer/DetailedGuide/cervical-cancer-treating-surgery. Updated August 2010. Accessed November 18, 2010.
Fernandez-Montoli ME, Baldrick E, Mirapeix G, Gine-Martinez C. Conservative treatment in gynaecological cancer for fertility preservation. Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010;(8).
Morris M, Mitchell MF, Silva EG, et al. Cervical conization as definitive therapy for early invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix.
Gynecol Oncol. 1993;51(2):193-6.
Comprehensive Gynecology. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2001:878-880.
6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Am J Med.
Last reviewed November 2012 by Andrea Chisholm, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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