What is Trauma?
Trauma is a serious injury or shock
to the body. It is caused by a physical force such as violence or an accident. The injury may be complicated by psychiatric, behavioral, and social factors.
It is critical to have an entire team immediately available to provide care to an injured patient 24-hours a day. This teamwork starts at the scene of the injury where a coordinated, statewide pre-hospital medical system rapidly transports the injured patient from the scene to the hospital providing the appropriate level of care according to criteria established in the statewide trauma regulations. Once at the hospital, a complete team of surgeons, emergency physicians and nurses continue the life-saving treatment.
This team approach to care of the injured patient has had a dramatic impact on saving lives.
Minimally Invasive Procedures for Massive Bleeding
Injuries take many forms. The most advanced hospitals can treat injuries with a variety of approaches that involve well-known ones, like surgery, and newer ones where minimally invasive procedures can replace some surgeries.
As a Level 1 Trauma Center, Hartford Hospital has Interventional Radiologists as part of the Trauma Team. They perform procedures such as "embolization" which is a recognized interventional radiology technique that is used to treat trauma patients with massive bleeding.
Click here to see some of the advanced interventional techniques available at Hartford Hospital.
Learn more about trauma
, or search below to learn about other health conditions.
Botulinum Toxin Injections—Medical
(Botulinum Toxin Type A; Botulinum Toxin Type B; Botox Injections)
Pronounced: baut-U-lie-num tock-sin in-jek-shunsEn Español (Spanish Version)
| Reasons for Procedure
| Possible Complications
| What to Expect
| Call Your Doctor
Botulinum toxin is made from a type of bacteria. It is toxic to the nerves. Another name for it is bacterial neurotoxin. An injection puts this toxin into muscle. There, it blocks the chemical signal from the nerves to muscles. This will decrease the muscle contraction (tightening).
There are several types and brands of this toxin. Examples include Botox, Dysport, and Reloxin, which are formulations of botulinum toxin type A. Myobloc is another brand, but it is a formulation of botulinum toxin type B. These products are used for cosmetic and medical reasons.
This injection process is often called
botox injection, although any brand of the botulinum toxin may be used.
Reasons for Procedure
The injection is FDA-approved to treat:
- Cervical dystonia (abnormal spasms of neck muscles)
- Blepharospasm (spasm of eyelid muscles)
The injection has also been used to treat other conditions, such as:
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Complications are rare. When they occur, they are temporary and mild. Side effects are related to the site of injection. For example, if injections take place near the eyes, there may be complications with eyelids or brow line.
Temporary issues may include:
- Stinging around the injection sites
The following are less common reactions. They are generally mild and do not last long.
Other complications that may occur include:
- Excessive weakness of the muscle around the eyes—can cause drooping of the eyelids or obstruction of vision
- Difficulty swallowing—can occur in patients receiving injections in their neck
- Compensatory hyperhidrosis—people being treated for hyperhidrosis may develop increased sweat production at another area of the body
- Excessive weakness or atrophy (wasting) in chosen muscles—the injection may slow any improvement in the muscle
- Neck weakness in people with long, thin necks
Risk of the botulinum toxin spreading beyond the injection area—may cause botulism symptoms, including difficulty breathing and death in severe cases (Children with
may be at a higher risk for this side effect.)
This procedure may worsen nerve or muscle disorders, such as:
The toxin can also interact with medicines, such as antibiotics. Tell your doctor about all of the medicines that you are taking.
You should not have botox if you:
- Have an infection or inflammation in the area where botox will be injected
- Are sensitive to the ingredients in botox
- Are pregnant or breastfeeding
What to Expect
Most often, none is given. Some patients may prefer to have the area numbed for comfort. In this case, a topical anesthetic may be used.
A thin needle will be used. The doctor will inject the toxin through the skin into the targeted muscle. You will often need several injections in a small area.
There is very little recovery needed, but remember to:
- Remain upright for several hours
- Avoid alcohol
The length will depend on the number of sites involved. It is often less than 20 minutes.
You may have some minimal discomfort.
Normal activities may be resumed after the procedure. For the best recovery, follow your doctor's
The toxin temporarily weakens targeted muscles. The treatment lasts up to four months. With repeated use, the effects may last longer.
Call Your Doctor
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
- Difficulty breathing
- Difficulty swallowing
- Difficulty speaking
- Severe lower eyelid droop or obstructed vision
- Excessive weakness around the injection site
- Rash or any other sign of an allergic reaction
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Allergan Physician Production Information. Botox cosmetic (botulinum toxin type A). Published April 2008.
Baran R, Maibach H.
Textbook of Cosmetic Dermatology. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis; 2004.
Conn HF, Rakel R.
Conn’s Current Therapy. 54th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Company; 2002.
Clinical Dermatology. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2004.
Ondo WG, Gollomp S, Galvez-Jimenez N. A pilot study of botulinum toxin A for headache in cervical dystonia.
Ward A, Roberts G, Warner J, et al. Cost-effectiveness of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of post-stroke spasticity.
J Rehabil Med. 2005;37(4):252-257.
11/4/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php: FDA gives update on botulinum toxin safety warnings. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm175013.htm. Updated August 3, 2009. Accessed November 4, 2009.
3/19/2010 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.dynamicmedical.com/what.php: FDA approves Botox to treat spasticity in flexor muscles of the elbow, wrist and fingers. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm203776.htm. Updated March 9, 2010. Accessed March 19, 2010.
5/17/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/: Jackson JL, Kuriyama A, Hayashino Y. Botulinum toxin A for prophylactic treatment of migraine and tension headaches in adults: a meta-analysis.
Last reviewed [Under Medical Review] by Mervin Low, MD, PC
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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