What is Trauma?
Trauma is a serious injury or shock
to the body. It is caused by a physical force such as violence or an accident. The injury may be complicated by psychiatric, behavioral, and social factors.
It is critical to have an entire team immediately available to provide care to an injured patient 24-hours a day. This teamwork starts at the scene of the injury where a coordinated, statewide pre-hospital medical system rapidly transports the injured patient from the scene to the hospital providing the appropriate level of care according to criteria established in the statewide trauma regulations. Once at the hospital, a complete team of surgeons, emergency physicians and nurses continue the life-saving treatment.
This team approach to care of the injured patient has had a dramatic impact on saving lives.
Minimally Invasive Procedures for Massive Bleeding
Injuries take many forms. The most advanced hospitals can treat injuries with a variety of approaches that involve well-known ones, like surgery, and newer ones where minimally invasive procedures can replace some surgeries.
As a Level 1 Trauma Center, Hartford Hospital has Interventional Radiologists as part of the Trauma Team. They perform procedures such as "embolization" which is a recognized interventional radiology technique that is used to treat trauma patients with massive bleeding.
Click here to see some of the advanced interventional techniques available at Hartford Hospital.
Learn more about trauma
, or search below to learn about other health conditions.
| Risk Factors
Panic disorder is a type of
characterized by recurrent and unpredictable bursts of terror known as panic attacks. A panic attack is accompanied by physical symptoms that may feel similar to a
or other life-threatening condition.
Intense anxiety often develops between episodes of panic. As panic attacks become more frequent, people begin avoiding situations that could trigger them. Panic attacks can lead to
agoraphobia. This is a fear of being trapped in places or situations where escape could be difficult or impossible.
Scientists continue to look for the exact cause or causes of panic disorder. It is believed to be related to:
- Family history
- Other biological factors
- Stressful life events
- Increased sensitivity to physical sensations
Factors that may increase the risk of panic disorder include:
- Sex: female
- Age: young adult
- History of another anxiety disorder
- Family history of panic disorders
Panic attacks usually occur unexpectedly and repeatedly. They include many of the following symptoms:
- Sudden and intense episodes of fear
- Racing, pounding, or skipping heartbeat
- Chest pain, pressure, or discomfort
- Difficulty breathing
- Choking sensation or lump in the throat
- Excessive sweating
- Lightheadedness or dizziness
- Tingling or numbness in parts of the body
- Chills or hot flashes
- Shaking or trembling
- Feelings of unreality or being detached from the body
- An urge to flee
- Fear of impending doom, such as death, a heart attack, suffocation, loss of control, or embarrassment
- Stomach pain
Symptoms of Anxiety
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. Since some panic disorder symptoms are similar to heart, digestive, and/or thyroid problems, a physical exam and tests can rule out an underlying condition that you may have.
Tell your doctor about your physical symptoms and how the symptoms make you feel. Your doctor will want to know if the panic attacks interfere with your normal activities. You should also tell your doctor if you:
- Have been feeling sad or hopeless
to control symptoms
The goal of treatment is to decrease the frequency and intensity of panic attacks. Treatment options include:
can prepare you for situations that may trigger panic attacks. Therapy focuses on:
- Learning how to recognize what causes your fears
- Gradually forming healthier thinking patterns
- Doing breathing exercises to increase relaxation
- Reducing fear and feelings of terror
Certain antidepressants can be used to help treat panic disorder. Medicines approved for this purpose include:
- Sertraline (Zoloft)
- Paroxetine (Paxil)
- Fluoxetine (Prozac)
- Venlafaxine (Effexor XR)
Your doctor may need to try different antidepressants before finding the one that works best for you. It may also take several weeks before your symptoms start to improve.
Anti-anxiety medicines called benzodiazepines may be prescribed to prevent panic attacks. These medicines may also be given to stop a panic attack. Examples of benzodiazepines include:
Note: Benzodiazepines can be habit-forming.
Studies have found that people with panic disorder get the most benefit from a combination of treatment—therapy plus medicine.
Some people find that avoiding
may help reduce panic attacks.
Caffeine is found in many products, like coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks.
You may be able to reduce your chance of having a panic disorder by:
- Avoiding caffeine
- Avoiding abusing alcohol and drugs
- Getting plenty of rest
- Scheduling a regular "quiet time" for yourself at home
Answers to your questions about panic disorder. American Psychological Association website. Available at:
http://www.apa.org/topics/anxiety/panic-disorder.aspx. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Antidepressant use in children, adolescents, and adults. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/UCM096273. Published May 22, 2009. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Panic disorder. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php. Updated April 23, 2012. Accessed August 27, 2012.
Panic disorder and agoraphobia. Anxiety and Depression Association of America website. Available at:
http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/panic-disorder-agoraphobia/. Accessed August 27, 2012.
8/22/2006 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php: Furukawa TA, Watanabe N, Churchill R. Psychotherapy plus antidepressant for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: systematic review.
Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:305-312.
Last reviewed September 2012 by Brian Randall, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.