What is Trauma?
Trauma is a serious injury or shock
to the body. It is caused by a physical force such as violence or an accident. The injury may be complicated by psychiatric, behavioral, and social factors.
It is critical to have an entire team immediately available to provide care to an injured patient 24-hours a day. This teamwork starts at the scene of the injury where a coordinated, statewide pre-hospital medical system rapidly transports the injured patient from the scene to the hospital providing the appropriate level of care according to criteria established in the statewide trauma regulations. Once at the hospital, a complete team of surgeons, emergency physicians and nurses continue the life-saving treatment.
This team approach to care of the injured patient has had a dramatic impact on saving lives.
Minimally Invasive Procedures for Massive Bleeding
Injuries take many forms. The most advanced hospitals can treat injuries with a variety of approaches that involve well-known ones, like surgery, and newer ones where minimally invasive procedures can replace some surgeries.
As a Level 1 Trauma Center, Hartford Hospital has Interventional Radiologists as part of the Trauma Team. They perform procedures such as "embolization" which is a recognized interventional radiology technique that is used to treat trauma patients with massive bleeding.
Click here to see some of the advanced interventional techniques available at Hartford Hospital.
Learn more about trauma
, or search below to learn about other health conditions.
| Recommended Intake
| Potassium Deficiency
| Potassium Toxicity
| Major Food Sources
| Tips for Increasing Your Potassium Intake
Potassium is a mineral and an electrolyte. Electrolytes are compounds that are able to conduct an electrical current.
Potassium's functions include helping to:
- Regulate fluids and mineral balance in and out of body cells
- Maintain your normal blood pressure
- Transmit nerve impulses
- Make your muscles contract
Most people should aim to get close to 5,000 milligrams (mg) of potassium per day.
Estimated Minimum Requirement of Potassium
|> 13 years||4,700|
Severe potassium deficiency leads to a low potassium level in the blood, called hypokalemia. But a potassium deficiency is rare in healthy people. However, certain conditions can cause the body to lose significant amounts of potassium. Examples of these conditions include:
- Excessive diarrhea or laxative use
- Kidney problems
Use of certain blood pressure medicines
Continuous poor food intake (may occur due to alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, bulimia, very low calorie diets)
Signs of a severe potassium deficiency include the following:
If hypokalemia persists, it can lead to irregular heartbeat. This can dangerously decrease the heart's ability to pump blood.
In addition, people who are on high blood pressure medicine
should ask their doctor about the need for a potassium supplement.
Potassium is rarely toxic because excess amounts are usually excreted in the urine. However, people with kidney problems may be unable to properly excrete potassium, allowing it to build up in the bloodstream (called hyperkalemia). Therefore, people with kidney problems need to closely monitor their potassium intake. Hyperkalemia can also lead to an irregular heartbeat. This can dangerously decrease the heart's ability to pump blood.
Major Food Sources
Potassium is found in many foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Less processed foods tend to have more potassium.
Here are some examples of foods that are high in potassium:
|Food (amount)||Serving Size||
|White beans, canned||1/2 cup||595|
|Potato, baked with skin||1 medium||610|
|Lentils, cooked||1/2 cup||365|
|Clams, canned and drained||3 ounces||534|
|Yogurt, low fat, plain||1 cup||531|
|Lima beans, cooked||1/2 cup||484|
|Dried apricots||1/4 cup||378|
|Tuna, yellowfin, cooked ||3 ounces||484|
|Honeydew melon||1/8 medium||365|
|Winter squash||½ cup ||448|
|Cod, Pacific, cooked ||3 ounces||439|
|Spinach, cooked||½ cup||419|
|Milk, fat-free||1 cup||382|
|Kidney Beans, cooked||½ cup||358|
Tips for Increasing Your Potassium Intake
To help increase your intake of potassium:
- Eat legumes, such as black beans, lentils, and chickpeas, three times per week. Combine them with rice and vegetables and wrap in a warm tortilla.
- Make garden salads with half green lettuce and half fresh spinach.
- Eat fish as your entrée a few times per week.
- Snack on dried fruits for a sweet fix.
- Use avocado on sandwiches or bagels in place of mayonnaise or cream cheese.
- Eat two brightly colored fruits and vegetables each day, like sweet potato, cantaloupe, honeydew melon, spinach, among others.
Chapter 8 sodium and potassium. Health.gov website. Available at: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/html/chapter8.htm. Updated July 9, 2008. Accessed April 18, 2012.
The American Dietetic Association's Complete Food & Nutrition Guide. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, Inc; 2006.
Food sources of potassium. Health.gov website. Available at: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/document/html/appendixb.htm. Updated July 9, 2008. Accessed April 18, 2012.
Hypertension. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Accessed February 15, 2008.
Hypokalemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/. Updated January 2, 2011. Accessed April 17, 2012.
Garrison R, Somer E. The Nutrition Desk Reference. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing; 1995.
Wardlaw G, Insel P. Perspectives in Nutrition. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby Year Book; 1993.
Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA, et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.
Last reviewed May 2012 by Peter J. Lucas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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