What is Trauma?
Trauma is a serious injury or shock
to the body. It is caused by a physical force such as violence or an accident. The injury may be complicated by psychiatric, behavioral, and social factors.
It is critical to have an entire team immediately available to provide care to an injured patient 24-hours a day. This teamwork starts at the scene of the injury where a coordinated, statewide pre-hospital medical system rapidly transports the injured patient from the scene to the hospital providing the appropriate level of care according to criteria established in the statewide trauma regulations. Once at the hospital, a complete team of surgeons, emergency physicians and nurses continue the life-saving treatment.
This team approach to care of the injured patient has had a dramatic impact on saving lives.
Minimally Invasive Procedures for Massive Bleeding
Injuries take many forms. The most advanced hospitals can treat injuries with a variety of approaches that involve well-known ones, like surgery, and newer ones where minimally invasive procedures can replace some surgeries.
As a Level 1 Trauma Center, Hartford Hospital has Interventional Radiologists as part of the Trauma Team. They perform procedures such as "embolization" which is a recognized interventional radiology technique that is used to treat trauma patients with massive bleeding.
Click here to see some of the advanced interventional techniques available at Hartford Hospital.
Learn more about trauma
, or search below to learn about other health conditions.
| Reasons for Procedure
| Possible Complications
| What to Expect
| Call Your Doctor
The perineum is the area between the vagina and the anus. It is made up of skin and muscle. During an episiotomy, an incision is made in the perineum.
Reasons for Procedure
The incision is made to make the vaginal opening larger during birth. In the past, this incision was common. But it is no longer routinely done.
Your doctor may do an episiotomy if:
The baby is:
or otherwise fragile
- Large and the shoulders may be hard to deliver
- Forceps or a vacuum are needed to assist in the delivery
Some short-term complications may include:
- Difficulty controlling your bowels
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
- Severe scar tissue in the area
problems with chronic pain in the vulva
- Short perineum
What to Expect
During a prenatal visit, talk to your doctor about the benefits and risks of an episiotomy.
If you have not had epidural anesthesia during labor, the doctor may use local or
The infant's head will start to stretch the vaginal opening. The doctor will then use special scissors to make an incision in the perineum area.
There are two different incisions that may be used:
- Midline incision: starts at the vagina and follows a straight line to the anus
- Mediolateral: starts at the vagina and continues at an angle
Midline vs. Mediolateral Episiotomy
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
After delivery of the baby and placenta, your doctor will close the incision with absorbable stitches.
This is done during childbirth.
If you receive anesthesia, you will not feel pain during the procedure. After delivery, most women have discomfort and swelling. You may need to take pain medicine.
The usual length of stay for vaginal delivery is two days. An episiotomy will not extend your stay.
Your stitches will dissolve in about 10 days. The cut will heal within about two weeks. There may still be some soreness until the skin gets its natural strength back. This could take up to six weeks. During that time, you may find it uncomfortable to sit or walk. Ways to care for your perineum include:
- For the first 24 hours after delivery, apply ice. Wrap the ice in a towel. Do not apply it directly to your skin.
- Ask your doctor about when it is safe to shower, bathe, or soak in water.
- When your doctor says it is okay, take a sitz bath several times each day. This involves immersing your hips and buttocks in water. Cool water may help to relieve discomfort.
- Do not strain when moving your bowels. Your doctor may ask you to take a laxative or stool softener.
- Use a spray bottle of water to clean the area after going to the bathroom.
- Use spray, medicated pads, or medicine as directed by your doctor.
When your doctor tells you to, do
Kegel exercises. Simply squeeze the muscles you use to stop the flow of urine. This strengthens the pelvic floor and can help the area heal faster.
- Avoid having sex, douching, and using tampons for six weeks or as directed by your doctor.
Be sure to follow your doctor’s
Call Your Doctor
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occur:
- Signs of infection, including fever and chills, swelling, redness, foul-smelling discharge
- Pain that you cannot control with the medicines you have been given
- Bleeding from the episiotomy site
- Continuing problems with
loss of urinary or bowel control
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Episiotomy. ACOG practice bulletin No. 71.
Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107:957-962.
Episiotomy. American Pregnancy Association website. Available at:
http://www.americanpregnancy.org/labornbirth/episiotomy.html. Accessed August 13, 2012.
Episiotomies. Brigham and Women's Hospital website. Available at:
http://www.brighamandwomens.org/departments_and_services/obgyn/services/midwifery/patient/episiotomies.aspx. Accessed August 13, 2012.
Last reviewed September 2012 by Andrea Chisholm
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Copyright © EBSCO Publishing. All rights reserved.